Les enfants tibétains apprendraient beaucoup mieux les matières dites scientifiques si les manuels étaient en tibétain, car c'est la langue qu'ils parlent chez eux et qui est la leur (une expérience dans ce sens a été menée en 1996 à Shigatse et les résultats ont été excellents pour les enfants tibétains ; comme par hasard, ce collège-pilote a fermé aussitôt - lisez Catriona Bass, Education in Tibet, London, pour des détails
- Student Unease at Language Policies in Schools, University -
Tibetan students at the University of Tibet came close to staging a
demonstration earlier this month after the authorities announced that a
history course will be taught in Chinese instead of Tibetan.
The announcement followed a decision by local authorities to close a highly successful project in three secondary schools where Tibetan children were being taught in their own language instead of through Chinese.
A long-standing requirement that all students pass an entrance
examination in Tibetan is also said to have been dropped this year, and
the widely respected committee in charge of implementing policies favouring the use of Tibetan Language has been downgraded to county level.
The Tibet University was partly founded in order to develop Tibetan- medium teaching, and the decision is seen by some as part of a gradual erosion by the current Chinese leadership of earlier commitments to enhancing Tibetan culture and to using Tibetan language.
The university authorities say that a course on the history of Tibet must
be taught in Chinese language, even though many of the teachers and
students are Tibetan. The decision is highly controversial because the
course is in the Tibetan Language Department of the University, not in
the Politics-History Department, where all courses are already taught
mainly in Chinese.
Scores of Tibetan students and staff are reported to have gathered on the
University's campus in south-eastern Lhasa on 3rd or 4th December to show
support for a group of up to 30 students who had formally complained
about the history course decision.
- Tibetan Language Project in Schools Closed -
The Chinese authorities in Tibet gave similar undertakings on Tibetan
language use in the mid-1980s, but many have not been fully implemented or are falling into disuse.
Four experimental Tibetan-medium secondary school classes, initiated by the late Panchen Lama in 1989 in three secondary schools in central Tibet, have now been dissolved or are admitting no new students. All other Tibetan children in secondary schools study in Chinese, except in some 40 special schools in Qinghai province, part of which known as Amdo by Tibetans.
The pilot project in the Tibet Autonomous Region, which included teaching physics, chemistry and mathematics in Tibetan language, was extremely popular and in 1995 its first graduates scored exceptionally high scores in their final examinations - 79.8% passed, compared to 39% of other Tibetan secondary school students, all of whom had studied in Chinese, according to a report by Tibet's Education Committee published in the winter 1995 edition of the journal "Tibet Education".
In Lhokha Middle School No.2 in southern Tibet, one of the four experimental
Tibetan-medium classes, 36 out of 37 students passed their final exams.
The 103 students who were the first graduates from the pilot project even appear to have been better at Chinese than Tibetans who have studied in Chinese - 66% of the Tibetan-medium students received pass marks for their Chinese language examination, compared to 61% of other Tibetan students, who study in Chinese.
Tibetan students studying in Chinese have scored well below national averages
and had been regarded as low achievers, receiving extra marks as
compensation, as part of China's policy of positive discrimination towards
"The Party committee on different levels, the Government and the education
department, must continuously support and respect the work of experimental
teaching in Tibetan Language," said the Education Committee in its 1995
report, which called for the project to be implemented in rural areas.
The pilot project was extended for one year but when the next batch of over
300 students in the project went to take their examinations in July 1996 they
were given papers which were in Chinese, not Tibetan. Most failed - only two
out of 50 students from the experimental class at Lhasa Middle School No.2
passed - and parents have had to find places and funding for them to resit
their final year in another school, this time in Chinese.
Une greffe pas facile en tibétain à mes yeux
La langue moderne a su créer un grand nombre de néologismes pour traduire les termes scientifiques ou techniques. Des dictionnaires de mathématiques, physique et de chimie d'un niveau universitaire ainsi qu'un grand nombre d'ouvrages de vulgarisation ont été publiés. Malheureusement, ces ouvrages n'étant pratiquement diffusés ou peu relayés par les médias, uen grande partie des tibétains utilisent des termes d'emprunt (en chinois ou en anglais) selon l'endroit où ils se trouvent.
Citation:Florent, tu ne manques décidément pas de culot de poursuivre sur ta lancée après la réponse de Françoise Robin. A moins que ta maîtrise du tibétain égale celle du chinois; mais ta modestie t'empêche de nous l'avouer.
Florent: une greffe pas facile en tibétain à mes yeux.
Citation:Serait-ce un tournant?
Florent: De toute façon ce débat est stérile car le futur est clair: les Chinois vont imposer le chinois.